If you’re in business for yourself, you know how challenging it can be to run your business and keep on top of your tax situation. Here’s a refresher on the tax rules you need to be aware of if you’re a self-employed sole proprietor or are thinking of becoming one.
As you probably know, sole proprietors do not file a separate federal income tax return for the business. Instead, they summarize their business income and expenses on Schedule C of their personal income tax returns.
Be sure to keep complete records of your income and expenses. Deducting all your ordinary and necessary business expenses will help minimize your tax liability. If your business is profitable, up to 20% of your “qualified business income” may be tax deductible. (You must meet certain requirements to qualify for this deduction, which is available for tax years 2018 through 2025.) If you have losses, these are generally deductible against your other income, subject to certain special rules.
Self-Employment (SE) Taxes
Any self-employed person who has net earnings of at least $400 from the business is subject to SE taxes on those earnings. SE taxes generally track the Social Security and Medicare taxes paid by employees and their employers and are partially tax deductible.
For 2018, the SE tax rates are:
Social Security — 12.4% of the first $128,400 of net SE earnings
Medicare — 2.9% on all net SE earnings, plus an additional 0.9% on earnings in excess of $250,000 for joint returns, $125,000 for married taxpayers filing separately, and $200,000 in all other cases
Quarterly Estimated Tax Payments
Your net SE income will be taxable whether or not you withdraw cash from your business account. Moreover, you may be subject to penalties if you fail to make appropriate quarterly estimated tax payments.
Home Office Deduction
If you work out of your home, you may be able to deduct a portion of the costs incurred to maintain your home. You also may be able to deduct commuting expenses incurred to travel from your home office to another work location.
Health Insurance Costs
When tax law requirements are met, you may deduct your health insurance premiums as a trade or business expense, including premiums paid for your spouse, dependents, and children under the age of 27.
If you don’t already have a tax-favored retirement plan, you may want to consider establishing one. Contributions to the plan would be tax deductible, within certain tax law limits. Types of retirement plans available to sole proprietors include solo 401(k) and simplified employee pension (SEP) plans.